Article: Volume 48 Number 4 Page 271 - April 2021

  Dent Update 2021; 48: 271-277  Read article

Oral medicine:  A review of non-plaque-related gingival conditions. Part two: reactive processes, potentially dysplastic and malignant neoplasms, and pigmented conditions

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Abstract: The dental gingivae are a unique part of the oral anatomy and an integral part of the periodontal tissues. Although the vast majority of abnormalities affecting the gingival tissues are due to a simple inflammatory reaction directly related to the presence of dental plaque, a range of non-plaque-related conditions also occur due to either local or systemic factors. Such factors include developmental abnormalities, the presence of malignancy and manifestations of underlying systemic conditions. Recognition and diagnosis of non-plaque-related gingival disease is essential for comprehensive dental health care.

Clinical relevance: This paper provides a review of the spectrum of non-plaque-related conditions that can affect the dental gingivae.

Author notes: Melanie Simms, BDS, MFDS RCPS(Glasg), PGCert (Dent Ed), Specialist Registrar in Oral Medicine, University Dental Hospital, Cardiff. Michael Lewis, PhD, FDSRCPS, FDSRCS, FRCPath, FFGDP(UK), FHEA, Professor of Oral Medicine, Cardiff University. email:

Objective: The reader should be able to recognize non-plaque-induced conditions that affect the gingival tissues, and know how to appropriately manage them.