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Article: Volume 45 Number 8 Page 750 - September 2018

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  Dent Update 2018; 45: 750-759

Miscellaneous:  Diabetes Mellitus: An Update for the General Dental Practitioner

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Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is an increasing public health concern and has been declared a pandemic. The incidence of diabetes is approximately 422 million worldwide. It is a chronic syndrome of hyperglycemia with anomalies in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism due to lack of insulin production, decreased cellular sensitivity to insulin, or both. Diabetes has a complex multifactorial aetiology and has a profound systemic effect on the body. Diabetes also has grave oral implications. In fact, the diagnosis of certain oral conditions can even precede the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. As such, as front line clinicians, dentists must remain ever vigilant of its signs and symptoms.

Clinical relevance: General dental practitioners encounter patients suffering from diabetes mellitus on a daily basis. A clear understanding of this disease process will ensure that patients suffering from this condition are managed appropriately. For example correct wound management and treatment of infection; and will allow clinicians to remain vigilant of other associated oral conditions.

Author notes: Farya Domah, BDent SC, BA, MFDS RCS(Edin), MSc Oral Surgery(UCLan), Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, Javed Domah, BSc, University of Dublin, Trinity College, College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland, Nirmal Shah, BDS, MFDS RCS(Edin), MSc Aesthetic Medicine(QMUL) and Raunaq Shah, BDS, MFDS RCS(Edin), MSc Prosthodontics(UCLan), Barnes Hill Dental Surgery, 267 Barnes Hill, Selly Oak, Birmingham, B29 5TX, UK.

Objective: To explain the aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, systemic and oral manifestations, treatment and effect on oral wound healing of diabetes mellitus.

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