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Article: Volume 49 Number 4 Page 320 - April 2022

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  Dental Update 499: 320-328

TMD:  Temporomandibular Disorders. Part 1: Anatomy, Aetiology, Diagnosis and Classification

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Abstract: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common causes of chronic pain in the orofacial region. The aetiology of TMD is complex owing to its multifactorial biopsychosocial nature. TMD shares many commonalities, and can be associated with, other chronic pain conditions. The physical and psychological impact of chronic pain on the individual can be far-reaching and should not be underestimated. This article, the first of a six-part series, aims to provide the reader with a background to TMDs as well as an overview of the clinical examination and diagnostic process for patients presenting with TMD-related pain.

Clinical relevance: Clinicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of TMD with which their patients might present and understand the complex nature of chronic pain conditions.

Author notes: Funmi Oluwajana, BDS (Hons), MFDS RCSEd, Specialty Registrar in Restorative Dentistry, University Dental Hospital of Manchester; Clinical Fellow, Health Education England Northwest. Pete Clarke, BDS(Hons), MFDS, MPerio, Specialty Registrar in Restorative Dentistry, University Dental Hospital of Manchester. Emma Foster-Thomas, BDS (Hons), MFDS RCS (Glasg), Academic Clinical Fellow in Restorative Dentistry, University Dental Hospital of Manchester. Martin James, BDS(Hons), MJDF RCSEng, Specialty Registrar in Restorative Dentistry, University Dental Hospital of Manchester. Charles Crawford, BDS, MSc, MFGDP(UK), PGCT&L, Lead Clinician TMD Clinic, University Dental Hospital of Manchester. email: funmioluwajana@gmail.com

Objective: The first of a six-part series to highlight the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and the complex nature of chronic pain conditions.

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