Article: Volume 43 Number 1 Page 74 - January/February 2016

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  Dent Update 2016; 43: 74-82

Orthodontics:  Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment

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Abstract: Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class III malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists.

Clinical relevance: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.

Author notes: Mohammed Almuzian, BDS(Hons), MDSc(Orth), MSc HCA(USA), DClinDent Ortho(UK), MFDS RCS(Edin), MFD RCS(Ire), MJDF RCS(Glasg), MOrth RCS(Edin), MARCDS Ortho(Australia), IMOrth, RCSEng/Glasg, Lecturer in Orthodontics, Sydney Dental Hospital and School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia, Fahad Alharbi, BDS, MOrth RCSEd, Orthodontic PhD student, Dental School, University of Dundee and Grant McIntyre, BDS, FDS RCPS(Glasg), MOrth RCS(Edin), PhD, FDS(Orth) RCPS(Glasg), FDS RCS (Edin), FHEA, Consultant/Honorary Senior Lecturer in Orthodontics, Dundee Dental Hospital and School, 2 Park Place, Dundee, DD1 4HR, UK.

Objective: To develop the knowledge of the primary care dentist and specialist orthodontist in relation to extra-oral appliances in orthodontics.