• Outstanding Seal
  • Antimicrobial properties
  • Promotes per-apical healing
  • Easy obturations and follow-up

BioRoot™ RCS. Succeed.

For more information on this exciting new product go to 


Article: Volume 42 Number 4 Page 346 - May 2015

Prev    Article P346    Next  Read article

  Dent Update 2015; 42: 346-353

Periodontics:  Assessment and Management of Halitosis

CPD:  CPD  0:24   (closed)      Self assess

Feedback:  0 comments, 0 ratings


Abstract: Halitosis is an unpleasant condition that may be the origin of concern not only for a possible health condition but also for frequent psychological alterations which may lead to social and personal isolation. The most frequent sources of halitosis that exist in the oral cavity include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets. Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are the prominent elements of oral malodour. Genuine halitosis and pseudo-halitosis should be in the treatment realm of dental practitioners.

Clinical relevance: Halitosis can be a symptom of underlying systemic disease, therefore the exact diagnosis and its source (oral or non-oral) is important in the proper approach to its management.

Author notes: Vijendra P Singh, MDS, Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Melaka, Malaysia, Neeraj Malhotra, MDS, PGDHHM, Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, ITS Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Greater Noida, UP, India, Abhishek Apratim, MDS, Assistant Professor, Department of Prothodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Melaka, Malaysia and Madhu Verma, BDS, General Dental Practice, Lucknow, India.

Objective: To focus on different aspects of halitosis, trying to demonstrate the most appropriate aetiology, classification, diagnosis and its management.